Lithography is a photographic method to define the lateral device structures, by exposing a thin polymer (i.e., photoresist) through a mask or by using a focused beam or a stamp. The line width is defined by the exposure tool.
A line width of 1 µm is routinely obtained by mask aligners, and i-line and g-line steppers offer linewidths of down to 0.5 µm and an alignment accuracy of 90 nm. Nanoimprint lithography reach linewidths of down to 60 nm, while the more complex process of Sidewall transfer lithography produce linewidths in the 10 - 100 nm range reproducibly.
Here we present the exposure tools together with the necessary additional tools, e.g., resist spinners and developers, hot plates and bake ovens.
Click on heading to sort the table.